SOIL AND VEGETATION FROM NOVI PAZAR (SERBIA) AND ROŽAJE (MONTENEGRO): RADIOACTIVITY IMPACT ASSESSMENT
Ivanka Antović, Nikola Svrkota, Dalibor Stojanović, Mirzeta Hadžibrahimović, Ranka Žižić, Gordana Laštovička-Medin
Received: 18 FEB 2015,
Accepted: 5 JUN 2015,
Published Online: 18 OCT 2016
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Soil samples from Novi Pazar (Serbia) and Rožaje (Montenegro) were analyzed by the ORTEC HPGe detectors with relative efficiencies of 35 and 40 % for radioactivity of 226Ra, 232Th/228Ac, 40K and 137Cs. An average radioisotope activity concentration for Novi Pazar soil was found to be 27.6, 49.5, 585 and 14.9 Bq/kg, respectively; while in Rožaje, 137Cs activity concentration was found to be significantly higher – from 33.9 to 322 Bq/kg. The obtained results were used to estimate hazard indices, such as radium equivalent activity (none of the localities showed a radium equivalent activity higher than 370 Bq/kg) and annual gonadal dose equivalent to natural radioisotopes, as well as external terrestrial gamma absorbed dose rate of 226Ra, 232Th/228Ac, 40K and 137Cs, and corresponding annual effective dose – used to evaluate excess lifetime cancer risk (then compared with the world average of 0.2×10-3, taking into account external terrestrial radiation – outdoor, i.e., average annual effective dose of 0.07 mSv). Vegetation samples from Rožaje – blackberry (Rubus fruticosus), spruce (Picea abies) and beech (Fagus sylvatica) showed 226Ra activity – 4.03, 1.1 and 0.99 Bq/kg, respectively; 232Th/228Ac – 4.5, <1.22 and 2.89 Bq/kg, respectively; 40K – 152, 98.4 and 79.3 Bq/kg, respectively; 137Cs – 3.05, 3.54 and 5.24 Bq/kg, respectively; whilst in Pinus sylvestris from Novi Pazar, they were – 2.7, 2.11, 163, <0.34 Bq/kg, respectively. Soil-plant radioisotope transfer factors were also estimated, and compared with typical ranges given in the UNSCEAR 2008 report. Since the most important radiation source for all terrestrial biota is the activity from soil, the dose rates are also evaluated using known internal (and external – in soil) radioisotope activity concentrations, as well as corresponding the dose conversion coefficients for external and internal exposure to particular radioisotope.
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