OIL EXTRACTS OF WILD APPLE FRUIT AS ACTIVE SUBSTANCES IN UV PROTECTION PREPARATIONS
Dragana Stojiljković, Ivana Arsić, Vanja Tadić
Received: 29 FEB 2016,
Received revised: 13 APR 2016,
Accepted: 20 APR 2016,
Published online: 26 DEC 2016
Full Text (PDF)
Permanent skin exposure to the sun may cause a lot of side effects due to the action of UVA and UVB rays. Several studies have shown that polyphenols inhibit the reactive oxygen species formation as their "scavengers", reduce the penetration of UVB rays to sensitive tissues, neutralize free radicals, and because of their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, participate in the prevention and treatment of many diseases caused by UVB rays. The use of cosmeceuticals rich in polyphenolic compounds represents a good basis for health improvement and prevention of UV-relatedchronic diseases. Apple fruit contains a large number of biologically active antioxidant substances, and their extracts can be potentially used for the prevention and/or treatment of many skin diseases caused by oxidative stress. The aim of our study was to estimate the antioxidant activity of wild apple fruit oil extracts obtained by different extraction methods with virgine olive and sunflower oil as solvents in order to investigate the possibility of their use as active substances with antioxidant effects in dermocosmetic/cosmetic UV skin protection preparations.
Two extraction methods were applied. Method 1 comprised the maceration of the wild apple fruit in olive or sunflower oil on a water bath for 4 hours (Samples S1 and S2). Method 2 comprised the maceration of dry wild apple fruit in 96% ethanol followed by maceration with the olive or sunflower oil extraction, heating up on the water bath and removing the ethanol throughly at same time (S3 and S4). All extracts were prepared in drug:extract ratio of 1:5. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as mgGAE/100g d.w. Antioxidant activity was determined by two methods: DPPH test and test with linoleic acid and expressed as %RSC (Radical Scavening Capacity) and %AOA (AntiOxidant Activity), respectively.
The type of used solvent did not have a significant influence on TPC and the antioxidant activity of oil extracts, but the used method of extraction was an important factor. TPC was the best for S4 (996.49 mgGAE/100g d.w.). S3 showed good TPC, too (729.90 mgGAE/100g d.w.). %RSC of S1 and S2 were 14.94% and 18.11%, and %AOA were 62.20% and 61.21%, respectively. The use of 96% ethanol additionally increased the antioxidant capacity (S3 and S4), compared to the extraction with oil solvents only (more in DPPH test). %RSC of S3 and S4 were 20.63% and 35.20%, and %AOA were 63.48% and 66.48%, respectively. All extracts showed a better ability to prevent lipid peroxidation, and a lower one to neutralize free radicals. Emulsions with oil extract showed satisfactory antioxidant activity. Oil extracts of wild apple fruit have good antioxidant possibilities and they can be used as active substances for UV protection.
- D. Stojiljković, D. Pavlović, I. Arsić, “Oxidative stress, skin aging andantioxidant therapy,” Acta Facult. Medicae Naissensis, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 207–217, 2014.
- A. Filip et al., “The effects of grape seeds polyphenols on SKH-1 mice skin irradiated with multiple doses of UV-B,” J. Photochem Photobiol B., vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 133-142, 2011.
- L. Primavesi, M. Piantanida, V. Pravettoni, “Studying Tea Polyphenols and Their Protective Effects on Skin,” in: Polyphenols in Human Health and Disease, Italy, chapter 66, pp. 849-858, 2014.
- Y. Miyachi, “Photoaging from an oxidative standpoint,” J. Dermatol Sci, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 79-86, 1995.
- D. Stojiljković, I. Arsić, V. Tadić, „Extracts of Wild apple fruit (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill., Rosaceae) as a source of antioxidant substances for use in production of nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals,“ Ind. Crop Prod., vol. 80, pp. 165-176, 2016.
- C. A. Elmets et al, “Cutaneous photoprotection from ultraviolet injury by green tea polyphenols,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 425-432, 2001.
- G. Xing-Hua, Z. Lan, W. Yan, L. Yuan-Hong, C. Hong-Duo, “Green Tea Polyphenols and Skin Protection: An Overview,” in: Tea in Health and Disease Prevention, China, 2013, chapter 78, pp. 923-931
- I. Jakšić et al., “Compounding of a topical drug with prospective natural surfactant-stabilized pharmaceutical bases: Physicochemical and in vitro / in vivo characterization – A ketoprofen case study,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm., vol. 80, pp. 164–75, 2012.
- J. Tucakov, “Lečenje biljem,“ Beograd, Srbija: Rad, 1997 (J. Tucakov, “Plants treatment,“ 7th ed., Belgrade, Serbia Rad, 1997)
- “Lekovite biljke SR Srbije,” ur. M. Sarić, Beograd, Jugoslavija: SANU, 1989 (“Medicinal Plants of SR Serbia,” Ed. M. Sarić., Belgrade, Yugoslavia: SASA, 1989)
- M. Kalinowska, A. Bielawska, H. Lewandowska-Siwkiewicz, W. Priebe, W. Lewandowski, “Apples: content of phenolic compounds vs. variety, part of apple and cultivation model, extraction of phenolic compounds, biological properties,” Plant Physiol. Biochem., vol. 84, pp. 169–188, 2014.
- A. Žugić et al., “Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in 10 selected herbs from Vrujci Spa, Serbia,“ Ind. Crops Prod., vol. 52, pp. 519-527, 2014.
- I. Arsić et al., “Estimation of dermatological application of the creams with St. John’s Wort oil extracts,” Molecules, vol. 17, pp. 275–294, 2012.
- D. Stojiljković et al., “Investigation of effects of different emollients on the structure and skin moisturizing potential of the cosmetic creams,” Acta Facult. Medicae Naissensis, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 193–200, 2013.
- I. Arsić et al., “Hypericum Perforatum L. Hypericaceae/Guttiferae Sunflower, Olive and Palm Oil Еxtracts Attenuate Cold Restraint Stress – Induced Gastric Lesions,” Molecules, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 6688-6698, 2010.
- A. Žugić et al., “Alkyl polyglucoside - stabilized emulsion as a prospective vehicle for Usnea barbata CO2 supercritical extract: assessing stability, safety and efficiency of a topical formulation,” Hem. Ind., Vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 703-712, 2015.
- S. Savić, S. Tamburić, M. Savić, “From conventional towards new - natural surfactants in drug delivery systems design: current status and perspectives,” Expert Opin Drug Deliv., vol. 7, pp. 353-369, 2010.
- “Farmakopeja SFRJ”, Beograd, Jugoslavija: Savezni zavod za zdravstvenu zaštitu, 1984 (“Pharmacopoea Jugoslavica” Belgrade, Yugoslavia: Federal Institute for Health Protection, 1984.)
- D. Stojiljković, I. Arsić, M. Tasić-Kostov, “The influence of polar and non-polar emollients on the structure and skin moisturizing potential of the emulsions stabilized by mixed emulsifier,” Acta Medica Medianae, vol. 55, no. 2, pp 25-30, 2016
- M. Tasić-Kostov, “Dermocosmetic emulsions stabilized with lamellar liquid-crystalline phase as a vehicle for lactobionic acid – colloidal structure, efficacy and safety assessments,” Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, Serbia, Doctoral dissertation. 2013, (in Serbian).
- V. L. Singleton, J. A. Rossi, “Colorimetry of total phenols withphosphomolybdic phosphotungstic acid reagents,” Am. J. Enol. Vitic., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 144–158, 1965.
- W. Brand-Williams, M.E. Cuvelier, C. Berset, “Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity,” LWT–Food Sci. Technol., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 25–30, 1995.
- H. M. Gordon, P. Maisuthisakul, “Antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of mango seed kernel by product,” Food Chem., vol. 117, pp. 332–341, 2009.
- K. Carbone, B. Giannini, V. Picchi, R. Lo Scalzo, F. Cecchini, “Phenolic composition and free radical scavenging activity of different apple varieties in relation to the cultivar, tissue type and storage,” Food Chem., vol. 127, no. 2, pp. 493–500, 2011.
- C. Cekic, M. Ozgen, “Comparison of antioxidant capacity and phytochemical properties of wild and cultivated red raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.)” J. Food Comp. Anal., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 540–544, 2010.
- M. Amzad Hossain, S. M. Salehuddin, M. J. Kabir, S. M. M. Rahman, H. P. Vasantha Rupasinghe, “Sinensetin, rutin, 3-hydroxy-5,6,7,4-tetramethoxyflavone and rosmarinic acid contents and antioxidative effect of the skin of apple fruit,” Food Chem., vol. 113, no. 1, pp. 187–190, 2009.
- V. Di Mambro, M. Fonseca, “Assays of physical stability and antioxidant activity of a topical formulation added with different plant extracts”, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., vol. 37, pp. 287–295, 2005.