LOW-ENERGY ELECTRON DAMAGE OF DPPC MOLECULES – A NEXAFS STUDY
R. Panajotović, S. Ptasinska, V. Lyamayev, and K. Prince
Received: 26 MAR 2015, Received revised: 22 MAY 2015, Accepted: 24 MAY 2015, Published Online: 28 APR 2016
Full Text (PDF)
In cancer research the radiation dose delivered to different organs presents a critical parameter for destroying the cancer cells’ DNA, but the biochemical pathways that bring cells to death in many cases start at the cell membrane whose major part consists of lipid molecules. In our XPS and NEXAFS experiment, we exposed a monolayer lipid film supported on gold to a spatially and energetically well defined electron beam (20 eV), simulating the charged particle avalanche produced in the exposure of the biological tissue to a high-energy ionizing radiation (X- and g - rays, ions, etc). Oxygen and nitrogen 1s edge scans show a clear chemical degradation of the DPPC monolayer. The major damage has been inflicted to the polar head of the molecule and its links with the molecules’ alkane chains.
- T.A. Legace and N.D. Ridgway, “The Role of Phospholipids in the Biological Activity and the Structure of the Endoplasmatic Reticulum,” BBA – Molec. Cell Res., vol. 1833, no. 11, pp. 2499-2510, Nov. 2013.
- S. Mukherjee and A. Chattopadhyay, “Influence of Ester and Ether Linkage in Phospholipids on the Environment and Dynamics of the Membrane Interface: A Wavelength-Selective Fluorescence Approach,” Langmuir, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 287-293, Nov. 2005.
- R.A. Bckmann and H. Grubmuller, “Multistep Binding of Divalent Cations to Phospholipid Bilayers: A Molecular Dynamics Study,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 1021 –1024, Feb. 2004.
- E.T. Castellana and P.S. Cremer, “Solid Supported Lipid Bilayers: From Biophysical Studies to Sensor Design,” Surface Sci. Rep., vol. 61, no. 10, pp. 429–444, 2006. DOI: 10.1016/j.surfrep.2006.06.001
- A. Turchanin et al., “Molecular Self-Assembly, Chemical Lithography, and Biochemical Tweezers: A Path for the Fabrication of Functional Nanometer-Scale Protein Arrays,” Adv. Mat., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 471-477, Feb. 2008.
- G. Ketteler et al., “In Situ Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study of Water Adsorption on Model Biomaterial Surfa-ces,” J. Phys. Condens. Matt., vol. 20, no. 18, pp. 184024, Apr. 2008.
- X. Liu et al., “Self-Assembly of Biomolecules at Surfaces Characterized by NEXAFS,” Can. J. Chem., vol. 85, no. 10, pp. 793-800, 2007.
- G. Hähner, “Near Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy as a Tool to Probe Electronic and Structural Properties of Thin Organic Films and Liquids,” Chem. Soc. Rev., vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 1244-1255, Dec. 2006.
- N.T. Samuel, C.Y. Lee, L.J. Gamble, D.A. Fischer and D.G. Castner, “NEXAFS Characterization of DNA Com-ponents and Molecular-Orientation of Surface-Bound DNA Oligomers,” J. Elect. Spec. Rel. Phen., vol. 152, no. 3, pp. 134-142, July 2006.
- V. Cherezov, K.M. Riedl and M. Caffrey, “Too Hot to Handle? Synchrotron X-Ray Damage of Lipid Membra-nes and Mesophases,” J. Synchr. Rad. , vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 333-341, Nov. 2002.
- E. Novakova, G. Mitrea, C. Peth, J. Thieme, K. Mann, and T. Salditt, “Solid Supported Multicomponent Lipid Membranes Studied by X-Ray Spectromicroscopy,” Biointerph., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. FB44-FB54, June 2008.
- LIPID Metabolites and Pathways Strategy “Lipid MAPS”, Data bases. Retrieved from: http://www.lipidmaps .org/resources/services.html.
- L. Sanche, “Low Energy Electron-Driven Damage in Biomolecules,” Eur. Phys. J. D, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 367-390, Aug. 2005.
- R. Panajotovic, F. Martin, P. Cloutier, D. Hunting and L. Sanche, “Effective Cross Sections for Production of Single-Strand Breaks in Plasmid DNA by 0.1 to 4.7 eV Electrons,” Rad. Res., vol. 165, no. 4, pp. 452-459, Apr. 2006.
- R. Panajotovic, M. Michaud and L. Sanche, “Cross Sec-tions For Low-Energy Electron Scattering From Adenine in the Condensed Phase,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 138-148, Jan. 2007.
- E.B. Watkins, C.E. Miller, W.P. Liao, and T.L. Kuh, “Equilibrium or Quenched: Fundamental Differences between Lipid Monolayers, Supported Bilayers, and Membranes,” ACS Nano, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 3181-3191, 2014.
- R. Panajotovic, M. Schnietz, A. Turchanin, N. Mason, N. Mason, and A. Golzhauser, “Degradation of Phospholipid Molecules by Low-Energy Electrons,” Book of Abstr. Rad. Res. Soc. Conf., Sep. 25-29, 2010, Maui (Hi), USA, p.99.
- T. Hemraj-Benny et al., “Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy as a Tool for Investigating Nanomaterials,” Small, vol. 2, no. 1, 26-35, 2006.
- Community site for x-ray absorption fine-structure “XAFS”. Retrieved from: http://www.xafs.org.
- A.V. Naumkin, A. Kraut-Vass, S.W. Gaarenstroom and C. J. Powell, Eds., “NIST X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Database,” Measurement Services Division of the NIST, USA, ref. db. 20, ver. 4.1, 2012. Retrieved from: http://srdata.nist.gov/xps/
- T.K. Sham, B.X. Yang, J. Kirz, J.S. Tse, “K-edge Near-Edge X-Ray-Absorption Fine Structure of Oxygen- and Carbon-Containing Molecules in the Gas Phase,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 40, no.2, pp. 652-669, Aug. 1989.
- S. Bhattacharayya, M. Lubbe, P.R. Bressler, D.R. T. Zahn, F. Richter, “Structure of Nitrogenated Amorphous Carbon Films from NEXAFS”, Diamond and Rel. Mat., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 8-15, Jan. 2002.
- P. Leinweber et al., “Nitrogen K-Edge XANES – an Over-view of Reference Compounds Used to Identify ‘Un-known’ Organic Nitrogen in Environmental Samples,” J. Synch. Rad., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 500-511, Nov. 2007.
- S.S. Roy, P. Papakonstantinou, T.I.T. Okpalugo, and H. Murphy, “Temperature Dependent Evolution of The Local Electronic Structure of Atmospheric Plasma Treated Carbon Nanotubes: Near Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Study,” J. Appl. Phy., vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 053703, Sep. 2006.
- 25. L. Pasquali et al., “UPS, XPS, and NEXAFS Study of Self-Assembly of Standing 1,4-Benzenedimethanethiol SAMs on Gold,” Langmuir, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 4713–4720, Mar. 2011.