Volume 2, Issue 2

Table of contents

Topical review

Radiation Protection


Jozef Sabol, Bedřich Šesták

Pages: 134-138

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2017.02.028

Received: 15 FEB 2017, Received revised: 25 APR 2017, Accepted: 5 JUL 2017, Published online: 28 OCT 2017

In principle, CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear) materials or agents could potentially be used by terrorists to construct a weapon of mass destruction in the future. This is why the European Union (EU), IAEA, NATO and other international groupings or organizations have taken relevant measures in fighting this threat. At present, it seems that especially the high-activity radioactive sources used in industry and medicine present a potential danger which has to be addressed. At the international and national levels various measures have been introduced aimed at the reduction of the risk due to radiological terrorism, including prevention – ensuring that unauthorized access to such sources is as difficult as possible, detection – having the capability to detect radioactive materials if control over them is lost, and preparedness and response – being able to efficiently respond to incidents involving high-activity radioactive materials and recover from them as quickly as possible. Nevertheless, we have to be prepared for the use of radiological weapons and be able to realistically assess the danger they present and to mitigate their impact on the population and the environment. The paper discusses the real consequences of an attack based on a typical powerful radioactive source. It has been found that the impact would be much lower than usually predicted. However, one cannot estimate the chaos and psychological effects, which may be more dangerous than the exposure of persons affected and the radioactive contamination of the areas surrounding the site.
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  2. Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources: International Basic Safety Standards, No. GSR Part 3, 2014.
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  3. The Council of European Union. (Dec. 5, 2013). Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom laying basic safety standards for the protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionizing radiation, and repealing Directives 89/618/Euratom, 90/641/Euratom, 96/29/Euratom, 97/43/Euratom and 2003/122/Euratom
    Retrieved from: https://ec.europa.eu/energy/sites/ener/files/documents/CELEX-32013L0059-EN-TXT.pdf
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  4. Regulatory control of radiation sources, No. GS-G-1.5, 2004.
    Retrieved from: http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/Pub1192_Web.pdf
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  5. Parliament of the Czech Republic. (Jan. 24, 1997). Law No. 18/1997 on peaceful use of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation (the Atomic Act).
    Retrieved from: https://www.sujb.cz/fileadmin/sujb/docs/legislativa/zakony/SUJB_CR_Atomic_Act.pdf
    Retrieved on: Feb. 7, 2017
  6. State Office for Nuclear Safety. (Jun. 13, 2002). Regulation No. 307/2002 on radiation protection.
    Retrieved from: https://www.sujb.cz/fileadmin/sujb/docs/legislativa/vyhlasky/R307_02.pdf
    Retrieved on: Feb. 7, 2017
  7. State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) official website, SONS, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Retrieved from: https://www.sujb.cz/en/
    Retrieved on: Feb. 7, 2017
  8. Fact sheet on dirty bombs,U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington (DC), USA, 2014.
    Retrieved from: https://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/fact-sheets/fs-dirty-bombs.html
    Retrieved on: Feb. 7, 2017
  9. Radiological dispersal devices (RDDs). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington (DC), USA, 2016.
    Retrieved from: https://www.remm.nlm.gov/rdd.htm
    Retrieved on: Feb. 7, 2017
  10. Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs): Dirty Bomb, Other Dispersal Methods, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington (DC), USA, 2017.
    Retrieved from: https://www.remm.nlm.gov/rdd.htm
    Retrieved on: Feb. 7, 2017
  11. G. M. Moore, M. A. Pomper, “Permanent risk reduction: A roadmap for replacing high-risk radioactive sources and materials,” CNS Occasional Paper, no. 23, pp. 1 – 27, Jul. 2015.
    Retrieved from: https://www.nonproliferation.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Pomper-Moore-2015.pdf
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  12. Dirty bomb fears fuel push for alternatives to radiological materials, American Institute of Physics, College Park (MD), USA, 2016.
    Retrieved from: https://www.aip.org/fyi/2016/dirty-bomb-fears-fuel-push-alternatives-radiological-materials
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  13. P. S. Falk, “The dirty bomb: Too dangerous to do nothing,” Foreign Affairs, Apr. 2017.
    Retrieved from: https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2017-04-04/dirty-bomb-threat
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  14. A. Neuhauser, “How real is the dirty bomb threat?” US News, Mar. 2017.
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Short notes



Ruslan Vazirov, Sergei Sokovnin, Maria Ulitko

Pages: 139-141

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2017.02.029

Received: 9 FEB 2017, Received revised: 17 APR 2017, Accepted: 22 MAY 2017, Published online: 28 OCT 2017

Postradiation complications that appeared after radiotherapy are considered the most serious problem in the treatment of various types of cancer diseases. Therefore, the research of radiomodification properties of nanoparticles is highly relevant. The aim was to study the biological activity of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CONP). CONPs were obtained by pulsed electron beam evaporation in the low gas pressure on installation NANOBIM-2. A feature of this method is the preparation of nanoparticles with a large number of structural defects of various kinds, which gives them unique physical properties, and allows expecting a high biological activity. A solution of CONPs was introduced into a normal breeding medium of the cell cultures in Petri dish to a concentration of 50 - 500 mcg/ml. To stabilize the CONPs, we used sodium citrate. Samples were irradiated on arrangement of Xstrahl 300 with 200 keV energy of X-ray and, after three days, CONPs have been added. The samples were irradiated to the absorbed doses of 5, 7.5, 10 Gy. To control the absorbed doses, we used the DTG - 4 thermo luminescent dosimeters (LiF). The analysis of biological response was performed using the Goryaeva chamber and the MTT test. The results allow us to make preliminary conclusions that the early addition of low concentrations (up to 50 mcg / ml) of CONPs will increase the sensitivity of cancer cells line Hela to radiation. Thus, the CONPs could be universal radiomodifiers to radiotherapy and their properties require subsequent studies.
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Radiation Measurements


Maria Sahagia, Aurelian Luca, Andrei Antohe, Mihail-Razvan Ioan

Pages: 142-144

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2017.02.030

Received: 20 FEB 2017, Received revised: 3 MAY 2017, Accepted: 5 JUL 2017, Published online: 28 OCT 2017

The absolute standardization of radionuclides is complex in the case of mixtures, such as is the case with the existence of radioactive impurities. The difficulty is still amplified in the case of radionuclides with very different emissions of gamma-rays, both as energy and intensity. One example is Co-57, which can contain impurities of isotopes Co-56 and Co-58. Even low contents of such impurities can influence in a significant way the final result as well as the activity of the measured radioactive source. In the present paper, an example of treatment of this mixture within the participation in the supplementary comparison code CCRI(II)-S6.Co-57, organized by the IAEA, within the Coordinated Research Project, CRP E.2.10.05 and in the key comparison code BIPM(II)-K1.Co-57, where the influence of impurities was underlined, will be presented.
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Marina Marković, Marina Petrović, Marija Živković Radojević, Aleksandar Dagović, Vladimir Jurišić

Pages: 145-147

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2017.02.031

Received: 17 APR 2017, Received revised: 31 JUL 2017, Accepted: 29 AUG 2017, Published online: 28 OCT 2017

Simultaneous occurrence of lung cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis, as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, appears in 0.7% of cases. The mechanisms of interaction between them are not fully clarified. We present a patient who, during the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma, developed pulmonary tuberculosis and, owing to a correct diagnosis, was provided with appropriate treatment. We analyzed the CT and radiographic findings during the follow-up of the patient and discussed the problems and doubts about the diagnosis of simultaneous occurrence of lung cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis. Differential diagnosis between tuberculosis and lung cancer is difficult and can pose a real clinical challenge due to the very similar symptomatology involving fever, malaise, sweating, and loss of body weight. Imaging methods routinely used in clinics, such as RTG, CT, and PET-CT, are of great help in such cases. The existence of the TB infection makes it difficult to adequately determine the nodal status in patients with lung cancer. The newly established lymph nodes may not only be the occurrence of tumors, but also already active tuberculosis or the progression of TB infection. Only the correct diagnosis can lead to successful treatment as described in this case.
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Original research papers



Amandeep Kaur, Nagalaxmi Vemalapally, Grant Severson, Jatinder Gulani, David Bolduc, Maria Moroni

Pages: 75-81

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2017.02.017

Received: 10 JAN 2017, Received revised: 10 MAR 2017, Accepted: 15 MAY 2017, Published online: 28 OCT 2017

There is a pressing need to develop animal models as well as treatment appropriate for age-specific radiation injuries. The minipig represents a promising animal model for testing the effects of radiation on the pediatric population. We subjected piglets, age 6 weeks old (corresponding to less than 2 years old in human), to either sham irradiation or to total body irradiation (60Cobalt 0.6 Gy/min) at hematopoietic doses spanning from 1.6 Gy to 2.0 Gy, and determined the dose-survival relationship and course of radiation injury in the presence of minimal supportive care. The LD50/45 was determined to be 1.83 Gy [CI 1.70 – 1.91]. The course of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS) in the piglet model resembled that of humans, with four distinct phases namely, prodromal phase, latent phase, manifest illness phase, and recovery or death. Kinetics of blood cell loss such as sudden lymphopenia, decline in neutrophil counts preceded by initial granulocytosis, erythrocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia with a characteristic shoulder followed by partial recovery mimicked the expected radiation-induced changes. Moribund animals were characterized by anorexia, lethargy, fever or hypothermia, bleeding, and dyspnea. Upon euthanasia, animals displayed dose dependent bone marrow hypoplasia and hemorrhages in several organs. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), a countermeasure approved for H-ARS in humans and effective in adult minipig, was tested in the piglets. Administration of G-CSF enhanced survival by 37.5% and reduced both duration as well as nadir of neutropenia. In conclusion, the minipig provides a practical and feasible animal model for H-ARS and development of radiation countermeasures for the pediatric population. te
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Nataliya Koltovaya, Alexandra Kokoreva, Natalya Shvaneva, Nadya Zhychkina

Pages: 82–85

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2017.02.018

Received: 26 JAN 2017, Received revised: 19 MAR 2017, Accepted: 22 MAY 2017, Published online: 28 OCT 2017

In connection with the active space exploration, the studies of the effects of heavy ions are currently of particular interest. Cosmic radiation is primarily composed of protons and other ions with energies of >10 MeV. We have modulated the effect of cosmic radiation by using heavy-ion beams at the Heavy-Ion Accelerator in Dubna (JINR). Particularly, we have investigated the biological effects induced by accelerated boron ions with the energy of 12-34 MeV/n and linear energy transfer (LET) 42, 61 and 101 keV/μm. Dose dependence of lethal damage, the induction of point mutations and chromosome rearrangements were studied. The effectiveness increased with the increase of LET and maximum effectiveness occurred at 61 keV/μm for inactivating and mutant effects.
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Sergey Koryakin, Elena Isaeva, Evgeniy Beketov, Aleksei Solovev, Liliya Ulyanenko, Vladimir Fedorov, Victor Lityaev, Stepan Ulyanenko

Pages: 86–89

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2017.02.019

Received: 13 FEB 2017, Received revised: 24 APR 2017, Accepted: 2 JUL 2017, Published online: 28 OCT 2017

This study provides the quantitative assessment of the photon-capture therapy efficiency using the X-ray facility and Au nanocomposite in solutions based on hyaluronic acid and melanin. The RBE using 10 % survival criteria for murine B-16 melanoma cell cultures was 1.5. The rats with implanted sarcoma M-1 were locally irradiated with 28-32 Gy of tumor dose. Irradiation in 28 Gy of cell cultures with the 4 mg of Au-based solution administered 15 minutes before irradiation, showed the similar efficiency as conventional 32 Gy. The skin reaction yield is dependent only on the absorbed dose. The therapeutic gain using the tumor growth suppression factor was 1.35, which is comparable to the RBE of B-16 cell cultures.
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Evgeny Beketov, Elena Isaeva, Egor Malakhov, Nadezhda Nasedkina, Sergey Koryakin, Stepan Ulyanenko, Alex Solovev, Anatoly Lychagin

Pages: 90-93

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2017.02.020

Received: 10 FEB 2017, Received revised: 21 APR 2017, Accepted: 22 MAY 2017, Published online: 28 OCT 2017

The study was carried out using the system of accelerators (I-100, U-1.5, U-70). Ultra-precise equipment to position biological objects was applied. The dependency of melanoma B-16 cells survival on the dose of 12C ion irradiation was obtained. The carbon beam was studied within three main ranges: Bragg peak, areas before and after the peak. Dose dependence in the peak and in the area before the peak had a distinct linear pattern. In the distal part of the Bragg peak, linear-quadratic dependence was observed. Carbon ions RBE were 4.5, 1.7 and 2.4 for the peak, the areas before and after the peak, respectively.
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Radiation Effects


O. Shpotyuk, M. Shpotyuk, S. Ubizskii

Pages: 94-100

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2017.02.021

Received: 14 FEB 2017, Received revised: 26 APR 2017, Accepted: 3 JUL 2017, Published online: 28 OCT 2017

A variety of methodological resolutions suitable to identify unambiguously radiation-induced effects in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors is analyzed in details. The radiation-optical effects in chalcogenide glasses are comprehensively considered as resulting from both intrinsic and impurity-related redistribution of covalent chemical bonds known as destruction-polymerization transformations. Two types of experimental measuring protocols are utilized to study the radiation-induced effects within ex-situ direct or in-situ backward chronology, the latter being more adequate for correct testing of competitive inputs from both channels of destruction-polymerization transformations. A critical assessment is given on misleading speculations of some authors ignoring intrinsic radiation-structural transformations in glassy As2S3 in view of accompanying oxidation and thermally-induced physical-ageing processes. In final, the As2S3 glass is nominated to be the best model object among a wide group of chalcogenide glassy semiconductors revealing the highest sensitivity to radiation-induced metastability.
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Radiation in Medicine


M. Vadrucci, A. Ampollini, F. Borgognoni, P. Nenzi, L. Picardi, C. Ronsivalle, V. Surrenti, E. Trinca

Pages: 101-107

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2017.02.022

Received: 15 FEB 2017, Received revised: 26 APR 2017, Accepted: 22 JUL 2017, Published online: 28 OCT 2017

A proton linear accelerator devoted to proton therapy application, is under construction in the “Particle Accelerators and Medical Applications Laboratory” at the ENEA Frascati research center in the framework of the TOP (Terapia Oncologica con Protoni) – IMPLART (Intensity Modulated Proton Linear Accelerator for RadioTherapy) project funded by the regional government of Lazio in Italy. The proton linac is composed by a modular sequence of RF linear accelerators designed to reach the energy of 150 MeV. The beam features, particularly useful for very conformal irradiation of tumours in complex anatomical regions, can be likewise translated to other situations. Therefore, during the process of commissioning of the TOP-IMPLART accelerator, the beam has been also made available as a versatile proton source for ancillary experiments in the framework of other projects. Presently, indeed, the maximum TOP-IMPLART beam energy is 35 MeV and this section delivers a 3 usec pulsed beam at the maximum repetition frequency of 25 Hz with a variable charge in each pulse in the range 5-100 pC. This beam is used for pilot experiments to simulate cosmic conditions on the ground and PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) analysis for the determination of elemental composition of archeological and old painting samples. This work presents an overview of these activities, describing in detail the different set up adopted to perform the tests and the main achieved results.
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Jussi Paatero, Blagorodka Veleva, Elena Hristova, Juha Hatakka

Pages: 108-114

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2017.02.023

Received: 14 FEB 2017, Received revised: 4 MAY 2017, Accepted: 3 JUL 2017, Published online: 28 OCT 2017

Airborne lead-210 is a useful tracer for studying air mass origin and transport. 210Pb is produced in the atmosphere by the decay of the radioactive noble gas 222Rn, emanating after 226Ra decay from the earth crust. The results obtained for 210Pb concentration in total suspended particulate (TSP) display seasonal pattern with maximum in the summer-autumn period. The TSP filters are collected within the scope of atmospheric radioactivity monitoring in NIMH, Bulgaria and were measured initially for short and long lived beta radionuclides. The methodology developed in FMI, Finland, based on gross alpha counting of 210Po- the daughter of the combined aerosol filters samples collected in Sofia during the period 2001 – 2003 and 2006-2007, is applied. The first results for 210Pb in particulate matter, fraction below 10 μm (PM10), in February 2012 in Sofia are presented. The alpha counting methodology was successfully applied for daily PM10 quartz filters with the counting uncertainty value of ≤20%. Lead-210 daily concentration is compared to the PM10 mass concentration and elemental lead concentration, determined by EDXRF technique. The comparison between 210Pb, elemental lead and PM10 mass concentration reveals a different time variation for days with cyclonic weather and mass transport from south-west and an anticyclone episode with increasing PM10, lead-210 and lead concentrations from day to day. An increase in the PM10/210Pb ratio indicates local sources of the particulate mass.
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Radon and Thoron


Janja Vaupotič, Mateja Bezek, Ivan Kobal

Pages: 115-117

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2017.02.024

Received: 12 FEB 2017, Received revised: 4 MAY 2017, Accepted: 20 JUN 2017, Published online: 28 OCT 2017

An air cleaner was installed in a room with elevated radon activity concentration, and the following parameters have been monitored: activity concentrations of 222Rn (Rn) and its short-lived products (RnP), degree of equilibrium between Rn and RnP (F), fraction of unattached RnP (fun), and the number concentration and size distribution of aerosol particles (5–530 nm). Several hours of filtration removed the >10 nm particles almost completely, thus increasing the contribution of the <10 nm particles, associated with unattached RnP. Consequently, fun was substantially augmented with a concomitant decrease inF.
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Radiation Detectors


Dovile Meskauskaite, Eugenijus Gaubas, Tomas Ceponis, Jevgenij Pavlov, Vytautas Rumbauskas

Pages: 118-123

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2017.02.025

Received: 10 FEB 2017, Received revised: 27 APR 2017, Accepted: 20 JUN 2017, Published online: 28 OCT 2017

High response speed sensors made of thin GaN-based structures can be important for the optical readout of the radiation signals in harsh radiation environment at hadron accelerator facilities. In this work, the metal-semiconductor-metal structure sensors formed on the MOCVD grown GaN heterostructures have been studied. The proton-induced luminescence (PI-L) and the BELIV (barrier evaluation by linearly increasing voltage) transients have simultaneously been recorded during 1.6 MeV proton irradiation emitted by a Tandetron type accelerator. The PI-L and BELIV measurements allowed for tracing the evolution of the parameters of recombination. The radiation damage on GaN-based sensors has been examined by capacitance-voltage (C-V) and deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) methods. The dominant radiation defects introduced by 1.6 MeV proton beam have been unveiled.
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Neutron and
Heavy Ion Radiations


Maria Ângela de B. C. Menezes, Ana Clara Oliveira Pelaes, Paula Maria Borges de Salles, Wellington Ferrari da Silva, Rodrigo Reis de Moura, Igor Felipe Silva Moura, Radojko Jaćimović

Pages: 124-128

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2017.02.026

Received: 13 FEB 2017, Received revised: 27 APR 2017, Accepted: 2 JUL 2017, Published online: 28 OCT 2017

Mineral composition analysis in agro industrial products is necessary for several reasons, such as the determination of nutritious value, assessment of product quality, detection of adulteration, compliance with legal and labelling requirements, food forensic, research and development. It is important to enhance that a variety of toxic elements in food has been increasing as a consequence of new agricultural practices, industrial development, and environmental pollution. For that, analytical techniques are expected to play a crucial role on chemical elemental concentration determination. In this paper, the neutron activation technique was applied by means of k0-standardized method. This method uses neutron flux monitors, spectral parameters of the nuclear reactor, gamma system counter absolutely calibrated and k0 constants and not standards of chemical elements, as in relative method. Several agro-industrial samples and one soil sample were analysed using the 100 kW TRIGA Mark I research reactor. Therefore, the objective of this paper was to show the versatility and the efficiency of this technique on multielemental concentration determination in diversified matrices, showing that several chemical elements were determined with a large range of elemental concentration. Reference materials were also analysed and evaluated statistically, pointing out the reliability of the technique.
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Pharmaceutcal Sciences


H. I. Harbatsevich, N. V. Loginova , K. A. Nabebina, S. I. Stakhevich, I. N. Slabko, N. P. Osipovich, G. A. Ksendzova, I. I. Azarko

Pages: 129-133

DOI: 10.21175/RadJ.2017.02.027

Received: 12 FEB 2017, Received revised: 1 MAY 2017, Accepted: 26 JUN 2017, Published online: 28 OCT 2017

The process of Ni(II) ion complexation with cycloaminomethyl derivatives of 1,2-dihydroxybenzene in a water-ethanol medium was investigated. It was found potentiometrically that the complexes with the ratio M : L = 1 : 2 were formed in the solution, their overall stability constants were equal to 7,9∙1014–1,6∙1015. The Ni(II) complexes synthesized were shown to be amorphous, neutral, and thermally stable up to 150 °C. Their coordination polyhedra have the composition [NiO2N2] and planar square geometry. It was shown that the Ni(II) complexes demonstrate a moderate or high level of antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi strains tested, as well as the ability to neutralize superoxide.
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